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Atmospheric nuclear weapon tests almost doubled the concentration of The above-ground nuclear tests that occurred in several countries between 19 (see nuclear test list) dramatically increased the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere and subsequently in the biosphere; after the tests ended, the atmospheric concentration of the isotope began to decrease.One side-effect of the change in atmospheric carbon-14 is that this has enabled some options (e.g., bomb-pulse dating Carbon-14 is produced in coolant at boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs).However, open-air nuclear testing between 1955–1980 contributed to this pool.The different isotopes of carbon do not differ appreciably in their chemical properties.Carbon-14 can be used as a radioactive tracer in medicine.In the initial variant of the urea breath test, a diagnostic test for Helicobacter pylori, urea labeled with approximately 37 k Bq (1.0 μCi) carbon-14 is fed to a patient (i.e., 37,000 decays per second). pylori infection, the bacterial urease enzyme breaks down the urea into ammonia and radioactively-labeled carbon dioxide, which can be detected by low-level counting of the patient's breath.Carbon dioxide also dissolves in water and thus permeates the oceans, but at a slower rate.has been estimated to be roughly 12 to 16 years in the northern hemisphere.

Carbon-14 is produced in the upper layers of the troposphere and the stratosphere by thermal neutrons absorbed by nitrogen atoms.

Liquid scintillation counting is the preferred method.

during his tenure as a professor at the University of Chicago.

Such deposits often contain trace amounts of carbon-14.

These amounts can vary significantly between samples, ranging up to 1% of the ratio found in living organisms, a concentration comparable to an apparent age of 40,000.), or other unknown secondary sources of carbon-14 production.

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