Cha with adult aunty
Unlike the first type of pronoun, these absolute third person forms (y, hắn, va) refer only to animate referents (typically people).The form y can be preceded by the pluralizer in southern dialects in which case it is more respectful than nó.The absolute pronoun người ta has a wider range of reference as "they, people in general, (generic) one, we, someone".Kinship terms are the most popular ways to refer to oneself and others.When speaking to an audience in a formal context, kinship terms are often strung together to cover common individual relationships: các anh chị em refers to an audience of roughly the same age, while các ông bà anh chị em, sometimes abbreviated ÔBACE, refers to an audience of all ages.In Vietnamese, virtually any noun used for a person can be used as a pronoun. can be used as a second-person personal pronoun when necessary.(While this can sound incestuous in Western languages, it parallels the pet names in other East Asian languages, whose speakers are just as nonplussed by English's romantic use of "daddy" and "mama".) The Vietnamese kinship terms are quite complex.While there is some flexibility as to which kinship terms should be used for people not related to the speaker, there is often only one term to use for people related by blood or marriage, for up to three generations.
The table below shows the first class of pronouns that can be preceded by pluralizer. In Vietnamese, a pronoun usually connotes a degree of family relationship or kinship.In polite speech, the aspect of kinship terminology is used when referring to oneself, the audience, or a third party.If two people are related to each other in more than one way (for example, by marriage), the rank of the closest relationship is used.This hierarchy may lead to situations in which an older person addresses a younger person using a term usually used for older people, such as ông.