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is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru.
They farmed maize, potato, quinoa and cotton, and traded gold, emeralds, blankets, ceramic handicrafts, coca and especially rock salt with neighboring nations.
The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Two other notable journeys by early conquistadors to the interior took place in the same period.
Sebastián de Belalcázar, conqueror of Quito, traveled north and founded Cali, in 1536, and Popayán, in 1537; In the 16th century, the nautical science in Spain reached a great development thanks to numerous scientific figures of the Casa de Contratación and nautical science was an essential pillar of the Iberian expansion.
Independence from Spain was acquired in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved.The oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE.Indigenous people inhabited the territory that is now Colombia by 12,500 BCE.Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Quimbaya, and Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques.The Muisca inhabited mainly the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau (Altiplano Cundiboyacense) where they formed the Muisca Confederation.