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A fundamental principle of geology advanced by the 18th century Scottish physician and geologist James Hutton, is that "the present is the key to the past." In Hutton's words: "the past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now." The principle of intrusive relationships concerns crosscutting intrusions.

In geology, when an igneous intrusion cuts across a formation of sedimentary rock, it can be determined that the igneous intrusion is younger than the sedimentary rock.

From top to bottom: Rounded tan domes of the Navajo Sandstone, layered red Kayenta Formation, cliff-forming, vertically jointed, red Wingate Sandstone, slope-forming, purplish Chinle Formation, layered, lighter-red Moenkopi Formation, and white, layered Cutler Formation sandstone.

Photo from Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah.

He also found that certain animals were in only certain layers and that they were in the same layers all across England.

Due to that discovery, Smith was able to recognize the order that the rocks were formed.

A similar situation with igneous rocks occurs when xenoliths are found.

These foreign bodies are picked up as magma or lava flows, and are incorporated, later to cool in the matrix.

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The principle of Uniformitarianism states that the geologic processes observed in operation that modify the Earth's crust at present have worked in much the same way over geologic time.

The Law of Superposition, which states that older layers will be deeper in a site than more recent layers, was the summary outcome of 'relative dating' as observed in geology from the 17th century to the early 20th century.

The regular order of occurrence of fossils in rock layers was discovered around 1800 by William Smith.

There are a number of different types of intrusions, including stocks, laccoliths, batholiths, sills and dikes.

Cross-cutting relations can be used to determine the relative ages of rock strata and other geological structures.

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