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Describe the many clinical and anatomic consequences of uremia.Recall the clinical, gross, and microscopic pictures, when applicable, for each of the following: Horseshoe kidney Adult polycystic kidney disease Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease Acquired dialysis cystic disease ("trans-stygian kidneys") Medullary sponge kidney Simple cysts Multicystic dysplastic kidney ("cystic dysplasia") Nephritic syndrome Nephrotic syndrome Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis Asymptomatic hematuria of glomerular origin Hemolytic-uremic syndrome Acute tubular necrosis Tubular proteinuria Fanconi syndromes Acute pyelonephritis Chronic interstitial nephritis (including "chronic pyelonephritis") Diabetes insipidus Urate, oxalate, hypokalemic, myeloma, and radiation nephropathies Benign "essential" high blood pressure Malignant hypertension Renal high blood pressure Other secondary high blood pressure syndromes Atheroembolization Hydronephrosis Nephrolithiasis Renal cell carcinoma Wilms tumor Transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the renal pelvis Explain how casts form.It is so well-known that I'm not worried about borrowers. Don't sell it for a profit, don't use it for a bad purpose, and at some time in your course, mention me as author and William Carey as my institution. And special thanks to everyone who's helped and encouraged me, and especially the people at William Carey for making it still possible, and my teaching assistants over the years.I never refuse requests from colleagues for permission to adapt or duplicate it for their own courses... Perspectives on Disease Cell Injury and Death Accumulations and Deposits Inflammation Fluids Genes What is Cancer?I cannot diagnose or treat over the web, I cannot comment on the health care you have already received, and these notes cannot substitute for your own doctor's care. Sometimes I get backlogged, sometimes my E-mail crashes, and sometimes my literature search software crashes.I am good at helping people find resources and answers. I am active in Health Tap, which provides free medical guidance from your cell phone. If you've not heard from me in a week, post me again.Cancer: Causes and Effects Immune Injury Autoimmunity Other Immune HIV infections The Anti-Immunization Activists Infancy and Childhood Aging Infections Nutrition Environmental Lung Disease Violence, Accidents, Poisoning Heart Vessels Respiratory Red Cells White Cells Coagulation Oral Cavity GI Tract Liver Pancreas (including Diabetes) Kidney Bladder Men Women Breast Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal and Thymus Bones Joints Muscles Skin Nervous System Eye Ear Autopsy Lab Profiling Blood Component Therapy Serum Proteins Renal Function Tests Adrenal Testing Arthritis Labs Glucose Testing Liver Testing Porphyria Urinalysis Spinal Fluid Lab Problem Quackery Alternative Medicine (current) Preventing "F"'s: For Teachers! Describe the different parts of the nephron, what each does, and what things are likely to happen when each malfunctions.
Numbers in are from the magnificent Slice of Life videodisk.Mention the various casts that may appear in the urine in health and disease, and what they mean.NOTE: For changes in blood chemistry (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, creatinine clearance, etc.), see my unit on renal function testing I also have a unit on urinalysis."Patterns": Kidney #'s 1-40 "Glomeruli": Kidney #'s 78-172 "Tubulointerstitial": Metabolic #'s 82-92; Kidney #'s 41-53, 63-77, 173-179, 192-204, 220-240 "Hypertension / Tumors / Stones": Kidney #'s 54-62, 180-191, 205-219 One thing that makes kidney pathology so hard is that many of the words sound alike.Here are the most troublesome words: Collagenized glomeruli: These glomeruli have been obliterated by dense type I collagen.